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Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Pathology of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (2018)

Medium:       Photoshop, Illustrator, Zbrush, Maya

Supervisor:  Dr. Shelley Wall, Dr. John Wong

Purpose:       This piece depicts the pathology of pulmonary tuberculosis from the micro to macro scale for a lay audience. I wanted to focus on explaining the cellular cause of tuberculosis pathology while also making it easy to understand at the tissue level.

Process:         First, I created a preliminary research report on the entire process of pulmonary tuberculosis, starting from infection to advanced stages. After the report was approved, I distilled the content down to focus on the mechanism of tuberculosis infection, and how that cellular process relates to the pathology of tuberculosis at the tissue level.

Next came the challenge of working out the reading order of the piece. Because tuberculosis progresses upwards in the lung, it was difficult to find a layout that led the eye in a way that was not confusing. Through numerous iterations and receiving feedback from professor Dr. Shelley Wall and Dr. John Wong, I settled on a comprehensive layout with text and visual elements in the exact places in which I wanted the final render to be in. 

Next, I created several maquettes in Zbrush and Maya, guided by my sketch on image planes. This helped me refine the linework and figure out the lighting of the piece. As pencil linework was retained in the final piece, rendering in Photoshop was relatively time efficient, taking place over 3-4 days. 

Special thanks to Andrea Gauthier for the feedback and guidance on this piece!


Agur A., Dalley A. (2005). Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. Lipincot Wiliams & Wilkins. 25-26, 38. pg 38 (bronchi and bronchopulmoary segments)

Used for the bronchi branches and lobes of the lungs pg 25 + 26 (Thoracic contents). Used for reference on artistic rendering of lung tissue

Burtkitt H., Daniels V., Wheater P. (2009) Functional Histology, A text and colour atlas. 43-44

Used for cell morphology of leukocytes (specifically nuclear morphology)

Kessel R., Kardon R. (1980) Tissues and Organs: a text-atlas of scanning electron microscopy. San Francisco, CA: Freeman. 209-217

Used for SEM histological reference for alveoli histology, blood supply, and macrophage surface features.

Krstic, R. (1991). Human Microscopic Anatomy. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 141-159

Used for histological reference for alveolar epithelium and capillary histology.

Kumar, V., & Robbins, S. L. (2007). Robbins basic pathology . Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier.

Used for general reference on pathological process of tuberculosis and for generating the preliminary research report.